Publications

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    • Environnement
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    [Impact sanitaire du carbone noir]
    This report presents the results of a systematic review of evidence of the health effects of black carbon (BC). Short-term epidemiological studies provide sufficient evidence of an association of daily variations in BC concentrations with short-term changes in health (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions). Cohort studies provide sufficient evidence of associations of allcause and cardiopulmonary mortality with long-term average BC exposure. Studies of short-term health effects suggest that BC is a better indicator of harmful particulate substances from combustion sources (especially traffic) than undifferentiated particulate matter (PM) mass, but the evidence for the relative strength of association from long-term studies is inconclusive. The review of the results of all available toxicological studies suggested that BC may not be a major directly toxic component of fine PM, but it may operate as a universal carrier of a wide variety of chemicals of varying toxicity to the lungs, the body’s major defence cells and possibly the systemic blood circulation. A reduction in exposure to PM2.5 containing BC and other combustion-related PM material for which BC is an indirect indicator should lead to a reduction in the health effects associated with PM.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
    • Politique internationale, Alimentation
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    [Mise en œuvre du cadre européen pour la réduction de la consommation de sel: Résultats de l'enquête des États membres]
    This report is an overview and synthesis of responses to a questionnaire sent to Member States in February 2010. The questionnaire sought to capture activities at national level from mid 2008 until the end of 2009 that had taken place within the context of the common European Union Framework on voluntary national salt initiatives (the ‘Framework’). The survey is an informal tool to gather information and to enrich the discussion within the High Level Group on Nutrition and Physical Activity (the “High Level Group”) on coordinating efforts to reduce salt intake among the European population. Responses were received from all 29 participating European countries, the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU) plus Norway and Switzerland.
    The nutrient that should be reduced is sodium. As mostly sodium is consumed in the form of sodium chloride, which is salt, the High Level Group decided to communicate about ‘salt’ and not ‘sodium’, as this is also better understood by the public. This is why this report mostly refers to the term ‘salt’. The amount of sodium is multiplied by the factor 2.5 to give the equivalent amount of salt.
    This report does not prejudice or replace the report provided by the Council Conclusions of June 20101 which will be issued by the European Commission in the next year. The reporting period of the present document can be considered to cover the first two years of the Framework, i.e. 2008 and 2009.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: Publications Office of the European Union
    • Tabac, Statistiques, Politique internationale
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    [Indice européen de prévention des méfaits du tabac 2012]

    The 2012 Euro Tobacco Harm Prevention Index (ETHPI) shows huge variations in tobacco harm prevention policies and practice around Europe. Countries such as Sweden, UK and Finland, in top of the ranking, represent active measures, reducing the health threat from tobacco. In the low end of the Index are countries still ignoring the relation between tobacco consumption and public health.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: Health Consumer Powerhouse
    • Maladies, Santé sexuelle
    • 2012
    • Communiqué
    • Anglais

    Faits sur l' endométriose].
    Endometriosis is a disease in which tissue similar to the lining inside the uterus (called “the endometrium”), is found outside the uterus, where it induces a chronic inflammatory reaction that may result in scar tissue. It is primarily found on the pelvic peritoneum, ovaries, in the recto-vaginal septum, on the bladder, and bowel. In very rare cases it has been found on the diaphragm and in the lungs.
    Endometriosis affects an estimated 1 in 10 women during their reproductive years (ie. usually between the ages of 15 to 49), which is approximately 176 million women in the world.
    The symptoms of endometriosis include painful periods, painful ovulation, pain during or after sexual intercourse, abnormal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, fatigue, and infertility, and can impact on general physical, mental, and social well being.
    A general lack of awareness combined with a “normalisation” of symptoms results in a significant delay from when a woman first experiences symptoms until she eventually is diagnosed and treated.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: World Endometriosis Society World Endometriosis Research Foundation
    • Système de santé
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    [Méthodologie d'évaluation des capacités des systèmes de santé pour la gestion des crises: Renforcement de la préparation des systèmes de santé aux situations d'urgence. Première partie. Mode d'emploi]
    In preparing for health crises, health systems face the prospect of multiple hazards, limited resources for dealing with them and high expectations with regard to their performance. The WHO Regional Office for Europe is working with its Member States towards strengthening health-system capacity by providing technical assistance in developing and implementing crisis preparedness and management programmes. In 2008, with the aim of improving the preparedness of countries for public health emergencies, the European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers and the WHO Regional Office embarked on a joint project entitled, “Support to health security, perparedness planning and crises management in European Union (EU), EU accession and neighbouring (ENP) countries”. The objectives of this project included the development of a standardized toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for managing crises.
    This toolkit was developed and revised during the course of pilot assessments carried out in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Poland, the Republic of Moldova, Turkey and Ukraine between 2007 and 2010. It comprises two parts: (1) the present document (user manual) and (2) the assessment form.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
    • Grossesse et maternité, Petite enfance, Politique internationale
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    [Né trop tôt: le rapport d'action mondial sur les naissances prématurées]
    Born too soon: the global action report on preterm birth provides the first-ever national, regional and global estimates of preterm birth. The report shows the extent to which preterm birth is on the rise in most countries, and is now the second leading cause of death globally for children under five, after pneumonia.
    Addressing preterm birth is now an urgent priority for reaching Millennium Development Goal 4, calling for the reduction of child deaths by two-thirds by 2015. This report shows that rapid change is possible and identifies priority actions for everyone.
    This inspiring report is a joint effort of almost 50 international, regional and national organizations, led by the March of Dimes, The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health, Save the Children and the World Health Organization in support of the Every Woman Every Child effort, led by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.
    Born too soon proposes actions for policy, programs and research by all partners – from governments to NGOs to the business community -- that if acted upon, will substantially reduce the toll of preterm birth, especially in high-burden countries.
    The report contains a foreword by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and is accompanied by more than 30 new and expanded commitments to prevention and care of preterm birth, joining more than 200 existing commitments on the Every Woman Every Child web site.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
    • Maladies, Politique internationale
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    Chronic, non-communicable diseases are a challenge of epidemic proportions. At a global scale, non-communicable diseases are estimated to cost $47 trillion by 2030. Europe currently has the highest number of deaths and disability in the world due to these diseases.
    This paper represents the European Chronic Disease Alliance’s (ECDA) collective input to policy makers in the frame of the European Union’s reflection process on chronic disease, specifically called for in the Council conclusions of 7 December 2010 on “Innovative approaches for chronic diseases in public health and health care systems”. The ECDA would like to urge the European Commission and the Member States to include the recommendations provided herewith in any forthcoming strategy on chronic diseases.
    For the purpose of this paper, the ECDA definition for “chronic diseases” is: Chronic non-communicable disease or conditions that are of long duration and generally slow progression, linked by common risk factors such as tobacco, physical inactivity, nutrition, alcohol, environment, and are largely preventable.
    On the basis of these Council conclusions, this paper recommends a number of concrete measures that can be taken by the European Commission and Member States to tackle chronic diseases effectively. First and foremost the ECDA calls for a coordinated EU-led strategy to tackle the enormous challenge to societies posed by chronic diseases.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: European Chronic Disease Alliance's (ECDA)
    • Enfance et adolescence, Santé mentale
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    [Santé mentale des adolescents: Cartographie des actions des organisations non gouvernementales et d'autres organisations internationales de développement]
    This report describes actions undertaken by a range of international development organizations to address adolescents’ mental health needs at country level. It was produced in collaboration with UNICEF.
    Adolescent mental health is inadequately addressed by international development organizations and actions at country level appear to be fragmented. Interventions for promotion of psychosocial well-being and provision of mental health care to adolescents often have narrowly-focused, project-specific objectives, while opportunities to mainstream adolescent mental health in education, health and child protection programmes are still largely untapped.
    The report was presented during an International Experts Meeting on “Bridging the Mental Health Gap: Reaching the World’s Adolescents”, on the occasion of the launch of UNICEF’s 2011 State of the World’s Children Report on Adolescents, and provided a basis for discussion on priorities for future joint efforts in the field. It is hoped that it will increase facilitate coordinated actions by international development organizations and other stakeholders towards improved programming on adolescent mental health in countries.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
    • Drogues, Politique internationale
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    [Évaluation de la mise en œuvre de la Stratégie antidrogue de l'UE 2005-2012 et plans d'action connexes]

    Publication disponible en version électronique sur le site de l'éditeur RAND

    Illicit drug use continues to be an important public health and safety concern in Europe. Production, trafficking and dealing in illicit drugs constitute important criminal justice challenges in themselves, and are associated with other criminal activities. The 2005-2012 EU Drugs Strategy (as with previous strategies) was developed to complement and add value to national strategies and approaches while respecting the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality set out in the EU Treaties. The main rationale for its development was that while drugs problems vary across Member States, and are experienced at the local and national level, they are "a global issue that needs to be addressed in a transnational context". RAND Europe undertook an independent evaluation of the current Strategy and its Action Plans, addressing four research objectives:

    • To assess barriers and facilitators to the implementation of objectives and priorities at EU and Member State level
    • To assess the relevance and influence of the Strategy with respect to national drugs policy and legislation
    • To assess possible impact on the drugs situation in the EU
    • To identify key aspects and recommendations for future EU Drugs Strategies

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: RAND Corporation
  • Dernière modification le 12-10-2015