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Années 2012 (2)
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    • Environnement
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    [Impact sanitaire du carbone noir]
    This report presents the results of a systematic review of evidence of the health effects of black carbon (BC). Short-term epidemiological studies provide sufficient evidence of an association of daily variations in BC concentrations with short-term changes in health (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions). Cohort studies provide sufficient evidence of associations of allcause and cardiopulmonary mortality with long-term average BC exposure. Studies of short-term health effects suggest that BC is a better indicator of harmful particulate substances from combustion sources (especially traffic) than undifferentiated particulate matter (PM) mass, but the evidence for the relative strength of association from long-term studies is inconclusive. The review of the results of all available toxicological studies suggested that BC may not be a major directly toxic component of fine PM, but it may operate as a universal carrier of a wide variety of chemicals of varying toxicity to the lungs, the body’s major defence cells and possibly the systemic blood circulation. A reduction in exposure to PM2.5 containing BC and other combustion-related PM material for which BC is an indirect indicator should lead to a reduction in the health effects associated with PM.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
    • Environnement
    • 2012
    • Rapport
    • Anglais

    [Les inégalités en matière d'hygiène de l'environnement en Europe. Rapport d'évaluation]

    The unequal distribution of people’s exposure to – and potentially of disease resulting from – environmental conditions is strongly related to a range of sociodemographic determinants. Interventions to tackle such environmental health inequalities need to be based on an assessment of their magnitude and on the identification of population groups that are most exposed or most vulnerable to environmental risks. But data are scarce.

    To address this gap, and follow up on the commitments made at the Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health in Parma, Italy in 2010, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has carried out a baseline assessment of the magnitude of environmental health inequality in the European Region based on a core set of 14 inequality indicators.

    The main findings indicate that socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in risk exposure are present in all countries, though they vary from country to country. The report reviews inequalities related to housing, injuries, and the environment, identifies gaps in evidence that still need to be filled, and suggests priority action to be taken at both the subregional and the national level, bearing in mind those national variations.

    • Date de parution:
    • Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
  • Dernière modification le 12-10-2015