To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV infections in problem drug users (PDU) in Luxembourg. To measure the validity of self-reported test results provided by study participants as well as obtained through the national drug-monitoring system (RELIS).
In a cross-sectional multisite study, data were collected by voluntary, anonymous and assisted questionnaires and serological detection of antibodies and antigens. Out of 1169 contacts, 397 participants were recruited within in and out-of-treatment settings (84.2% injecting drug users; IDU).
The prevalence of antibodies to HIV was 8/272 (2.9%; 95% CI 0.9% to 4.9%), to HCV 245/343 (71.4%; 66.6% to 76.2%), and 67/310 (21.6%; 17.1% to 26.2%) to total HBV antibodies and surface antigen (for IDU 5/202, 218/268 and 59/239, respectively). Specificity of study self-reports was very high for HBV and perfect for HCV and HIV. Sensitivity was 0.224, 0.798 and 0.800, respectively. Kappa scores provided degrees of agreement between serological tests and study self-reports of 0.89 for HIV, 0.65 for HCV and 0.25 for HBV. In contrast to simultaneous cross-sectional self-reports, secondary self-reported data (RELIS) showed high agreement for HIV and HBV infections and provided a good proxy for estimation of HCV seroprevalence.
HIV testing routines in PDU should be completed at least by HBV and HCV detection given the poor validity of cross-sectional self-reports on hepatitis infections. HIV and hepatitis prevalence estimations in PDU gain by relying on multisite/setting data collection. Research should further investigate the validity of HIV and hepatitis self-reports from routine drug-monitoring systems versus cross-sectional surveys.
- Date de parution: janvier 2012
- Alain ORIGER, Jean-Claude SCHMIT
- Editeur: BMJ
Bulletin de la Societe des sciences medicales du Grand-Duche de Luxembourg, 2006, n°1, p.29-35.
Le but de cette étude a été d’estimer la prévalence du diabète au Luxembourg, de la comparer à celle rapportée en 1991 et d’évaluer les éventuels changements dans les conduites thérapeutiques.
- Date de parution: 2006
- M. PERQUIN, M. KEIPES, R. WIRION, N. HAAS, C.E. de BEAUFORT et G.H. MICHEL
- Editeur: Société des Sciences Médicales du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
[Les inégalités socio-économiques dans le tabagisme et le sevrage tabagique en raison d'une interdiction de fumer: Etude transversale basée sur la population générale du Luxembourg]
This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups.
- Date de parution: avril 2016
- Anastase TCHICAYA, Nathalie LORENTZ, Stefaan DEMAREST
- Editeur: Plos One
We analysed gender differences in national fatal overdose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011 (n = 340).
Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and drug use surveillance sources and of forensic evidence. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis of male/female differences according to sociodemographics, forensic evidence and drug use trajectories.
The burden of deaths caused by FOD on the general national mortality was higher for men (PMR/100=0.55) compared with women (PMR/100=0.34). Compared with their male peers, women were younger at the time of death (t=3.274; p=0.001) and showed shorter drug use careers (t=2.228; p=0.028). Heroin use was recorded more frequently in first drug offences of female victims (AOR=6.59; 95% CI 2.97-14.63) and according to forensic evidence, psychotropic prescription drugs were detected to a higher degree in females (AOR=2.019; 95% CI 1.065-3.827).
The time window between the onset of illicit drug use and its fatal outcome revealed to be shorter for women versus men included in our study. Early intervention in female drug users, routine involvement of first-line healthcare providers and increased attention to use of poly- and psychotropic prescription drugs might contribute to prevent premature drug-related death and reduce gender differences.
- Date de parution: février 2014
- Alain ORIGER A, Sofia LOPES DA COSTA S, Michèle BAUMANN
- Editeur: Karger
La présente Convention a pour objet de promouvoir, protéger et assurer la pleine et égale jouissance de tous les droits de l’homme et de toutes les libertés fondamentales par les personnes handicapées et de promouvoir le respect de leur dignité intrinsèque.
- Date de parution: avril 2008
- Editeur: ONU [UNO]
[L'apport en sodium pour les adultes et les enfants]
This guideline provides updated global, evidence-informed recommendations on the consumption of sodium to reduce NCDs in most adults and children. The recommendations in this guideline can be used by policy-makers, technical and programme planners in the government and various organizations involved in the design, implementation and scaling-up of nutrition actions for public health and prevention of NCDs, to assess current sodium intake levels relative to a benchmark and develop measures to decrease sodium intake, where necessary, through public health interventions including, reducing content in manufactured food, food and product labelling, consumer education, and the establishment of food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG).
The guideline should be should be used in conjunction with potassium and other nutrient guidelines to develop and guide national policies and public health nutrition programmes.
The reduction of sodium intake in the population is a cost-effective public health intervention for preventing NCDs and is one of the nine global targets selected by Member States for the prevention and control of NCDs.
- Date de parution: novembre 2012
- Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
[Liste de contrôle pour les interventions en cas d'urgence à l'intention des hôpitaux]
Hospitals play a critical role in providing communities with essential medical care during all types of disaster. Depending on their scope and nature, disasters can lead to a rapidly increasing service demand that can overwhelm the functional capacity and safety of hospitals and the health-care system at large. The World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe has developed the Hospital emergency response checklist to assist hospital administrators and emergency managers in responding effectively to the most likely disaster scenarios. This tool comprises current hospital-based emergency management principles and best practices and integrates priority action required for rapid, effective response to a critical event based on an all-hazards approach. The tool is structured according to nine key components, each with a list of priority action to support hospital managers and emergency planners in achieving: (1) continuity of essential services; (2) well-coordinated implementation of hospital operations at every level; (3) clear and accurate internal and external communication; (4) swift adaptation to increased demands; (5) the effective use of scarce resources; and (6) a safe environment for health-care workers. References to selected supplemental tools, guidelines and other applicable resources are provided. The principles and recommendations included in this tool may be used by hospitals at any level of emergency preparedness. The checklist is intended to complement existing multisectoral hospital emergency management plans and, when possible, augment standard operating procedures during non-crisis situations.
- Date de parution: août 2011
- Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
[Lignes directrices européennes pour l'assurance de la qualité dans le dépistage du cancer colorectal]
The guidelines on colorectal cancer screening form the third and final set of three cancer screening guidelines on breast and cervical cancer published by the Commission to assist Member States in their screening and early detection programmes.
Today’s publication provides the first ever set of uniform guidelines on all the steps necessary for effective population based colorectal cancer screening in the EU. By implementing them, Member States have the potential to organise their health systems more effectively, including the diagnosis and management of cancers detected in screening. There is good evidence that population-based screening using the EU-recommended test reduces mortality from colorectal cancer by around 15% in people of appropriate age (50 to 74 years) invited to attend screening.
The guidelines, coordinated for the Commission by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), were developed with the input of over 90 experts from 32 countries, and set a benchmark for best practice in colorectal cancer screening. Widespread application of the Guidelines should also make it easier for experts in the field to exchange information and experience across the EU. This is essential for innovation and continuous quality improvement of existing cancer screening programmes.
- Date de parution: décembre 2010
- Editeur: Publications Office of the European Union