To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV infections in problem drug users (PDU) in Luxembourg. To measure the validity of self-reported test results provided by study participants as well as obtained through the national drug-monitoring system (RELIS).
In a cross-sectional multisite study, data were collected by voluntary, anonymous and assisted questionnaires and serological detection of antibodies and antigens. Out of 1169 contacts, 397 participants were recruited within in and out-of-treatment settings (84.2% injecting drug users; IDU).
The prevalence of antibodies to HIV was 8/272 (2.9%; 95% CI 0.9% to 4.9%), to HCV 245/343 (71.4%; 66.6% to 76.2%), and 67/310 (21.6%; 17.1% to 26.2%) to total HBV antibodies and surface antigen (for IDU 5/202, 218/268 and 59/239, respectively). Specificity of study self-reports was very high for HBV and perfect for HCV and HIV. Sensitivity was 0.224, 0.798 and 0.800, respectively. Kappa scores provided degrees of agreement between serological tests and study self-reports of 0.89 for HIV, 0.65 for HCV and 0.25 for HBV. In contrast to simultaneous cross-sectional self-reports, secondary self-reported data (RELIS) showed high agreement for HIV and HBV infections and provided a good proxy for estimation of HCV seroprevalence.
HIV testing routines in PDU should be completed at least by HBV and HCV detection given the poor validity of cross-sectional self-reports on hepatitis infections. HIV and hepatitis prevalence estimations in PDU gain by relying on multisite/setting data collection. Research should further investigate the validity of HIV and hepatitis self-reports from routine drug-monitoring systems versus cross-sectional surveys.
- Date de parution: janvier 2012
- Alain ORIGER, Jean-Claude SCHMIT
- Editeur: BMJ
Aperçu de la situation des soins de longue durée au Luxembourg issu du rapport de l'OCDE "Besoin d’aide ? La prestation de services et le financement de la dépendance" : Notes et faits saillants pour le Luxembourg.
- Date de parution: mai 2011
- Editeur: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Economiques (OCDE)
To investigate social and economic inequalities in fatal overdose cases related to opioid and cocaine use, recorded in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2011.
Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and drug use surveillance sources and of forensic evidence in a nested case-control study design. Overdose cases were individually matched with four controls, when available, according to sex, year of birth, drug administration route and duration of drug use. 272 cases vs 1056 controls were analysed. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the respective impact of a series of socioeconomic variables.
Being professionally active [OR=0.66 (95% CI 0.45-0.99)], reporting salary as main legal income source [OR=0.42 (95% CI 0.26-0.67)] and education attainment higher than primary school [OR=0.50 (95% CI 0.34-0.73)] revealed to be protective factors, whereas the professional status of the father or legal guardian of victims was not significantly associated to fatal overdoses.
Socioeconomic inequalities in drug users impact on the occurrence of fatal overdoses. Compared to their peers, users of illicit drugs with lower socioeconomic profiles show increased odds of dying from overdose. However, actual and self-referred socioeconomic characteristics of drug users, such as educational attainment and employment, may have a greater predictive value of overdose mortality than the parental socioeconomic status. Education, vocational training and socio-professional reintegration should be part of drug-related mortality prevention policies.
- Date de parution: septembre 2014
- Alain ORIGER
- Editeur: Elsevier
Cette déclaration adoptée sous présidence luxembourgeoise, a établi un accord entre les représentants des ministères de santé nationaux, les représentants nationaux et européens de sociétés pour la santé cardiaque et de fondations du cœur afin de poursuivre l'initiative pour le renforcement de plans d'ensemble de la prévention des MCV et d'assurer que des mesures efficaces, des politiques et des interventions se mettent en place dans tous les pays européens.
- Date de parution: juin 2005
- Editeur: Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General European Society of Cardiology (ESC)
Cette fiche d'information, destinée au grand public, fournit des informations sur les symptômes et les complications associées à la grippe, ainsi que recommandations de l'OMS pour la vaccination antigrippale.
- Date de parution: mars 2012
- Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
[Les inégalités socio-économiques dans le tabagisme et le sevrage tabagique en raison d'une interdiction de fumer: Etude transversale basée sur la population générale du Luxembourg]
This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups.
- Date de parution: avril 2016
- Anastase TCHICAYA, Nathalie LORENTZ, Stefaan DEMAREST
- Editeur: Plos One
[Résumé des dernières données européenne sur la résistance aux antibiotiques et la consommation d'antibiotiques]
Antibiotic resistance is an emerging problem throughout the European Union (EU) and increasing trends in antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing infections in humans are being reported by many Member States. There are large, inter-country variations in occurrence of antibiotic resistance in the EU.
Use of antibiotics is recognized as the main driving force behind increasing occurrence of antibiotic resistance. As observed for antibiotic resistance, there are also large, inter-country variations in the consumption of antibiotics in the EU. Previous studies have reported on correlations between the level of antibiotic consumption and occurrence of antibiotic resistance in European countries (see e.g., Goossens H, et al. Lancet 2005;365:579-87).
- Date de parution: novembre 2008
- Editeur: European Centre for Disease prevention and Control (ECDC)
Les professionnels de santé peuvent donner cette fiche d'information aux parents pour les aider à informer sur les risques associés aux maladies à prévention vaccinales.
- Date de parution: avril 2012
- Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
We analysed gender differences in national fatal overdose (FOD) cases related to opiates and cocaine use between 1985 and 2011 (n = 340).
Cross-examination of national data from law enforcement and drug use surveillance sources and of forensic evidence. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis of male/female differences according to sociodemographics, forensic evidence and drug use trajectories.
The burden of deaths caused by FOD on the general national mortality was higher for men (PMR/100=0.55) compared with women (PMR/100=0.34). Compared with their male peers, women were younger at the time of death (t=3.274; p=0.001) and showed shorter drug use careers (t=2.228; p=0.028). Heroin use was recorded more frequently in first drug offences of female victims (AOR=6.59; 95% CI 2.97-14.63) and according to forensic evidence, psychotropic prescription drugs were detected to a higher degree in females (AOR=2.019; 95% CI 1.065-3.827).
The time window between the onset of illicit drug use and its fatal outcome revealed to be shorter for women versus men included in our study. Early intervention in female drug users, routine involvement of first-line healthcare providers and increased attention to use of poly- and psychotropic prescription drugs might contribute to prevent premature drug-related death and reduce gender differences.
- Date de parution: février 2014
- Alain ORIGER A, Sofia LOPES DA COSTA S, Michèle BAUMANN
- Editeur: Karger
Journal officiel de l'Union Européenne, L 86, 21 mars 2014, p.1-13.
Le troisième programme Santé de l'UE (2014-2020) est le principal instrument utilisé par la Commission européenne pour appliquer la stratégie de l'UE en matière de santé. Le programme poursuit 4 grands objectifs:
- agir en faveur de la santé, prévenir les maladies et créer des conditions favorables à des modes de - vie sains, en tenant compte du principe de l'intégration des questions de santé dans toutes les politiques;
- protéger les citoyens de l'Union des menaces transfrontières graves sur la santé;
- contribuer à des systèmes de santé innovants, efficaces et viables;
- améliorer l'accès des citoyens de l'Union à des soins de santé de meilleure qualité et plus sûrs.
- Date de parution: mars 2014
- Editeur: Journal officiel de l'Union Européenne