To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV infections in problem drug users (PDU) in Luxembourg. To measure the validity of self-reported test results provided by study participants as well as obtained through the national drug-monitoring system (RELIS).
In a cross-sectional multisite study, data were collected by voluntary, anonymous and assisted questionnaires and serological detection of antibodies and antigens. Out of 1169 contacts, 397 participants were recruited within in and out-of-treatment settings (84.2% injecting drug users; IDU).
The prevalence of antibodies to HIV was 8/272 (2.9%; 95% CI 0.9% to 4.9%), to HCV 245/343 (71.4%; 66.6% to 76.2%), and 67/310 (21.6%; 17.1% to 26.2%) to total HBV antibodies and surface antigen (for IDU 5/202, 218/268 and 59/239, respectively). Specificity of study self-reports was very high for HBV and perfect for HCV and HIV. Sensitivity was 0.224, 0.798 and 0.800, respectively. Kappa scores provided degrees of agreement between serological tests and study self-reports of 0.89 for HIV, 0.65 for HCV and 0.25 for HBV. In contrast to simultaneous cross-sectional self-reports, secondary self-reported data (RELIS) showed high agreement for HIV and HBV infections and provided a good proxy for estimation of HCV seroprevalence.
HIV testing routines in PDU should be completed at least by HBV and HCV detection given the poor validity of cross-sectional self-reports on hepatitis infections. HIV and hepatitis prevalence estimations in PDU gain by relying on multisite/setting data collection. Research should further investigate the validity of HIV and hepatitis self-reports from routine drug-monitoring systems versus cross-sectional surveys.
- Date de parution: janvier 2012
- Alain ORIGER, Jean-Claude SCHMIT
- Editeur: BMJ
Enquête paneuropéenne sur l’alcool et d’autres drogues en milieu scolaire (ESPAD).
Le nouveau rapport ESPAD fait état d’une consommation de drogues stable chez les jeunes scolarisés et d’une réduction de la «consommation épisodique excessive d’alcool», mais pas de baisse dans le nombre de jeunes fumeurs de tabac.
Il s’agit de la cinquième vague de collecte de données conduite par le projet ESPAD, les enquêtes multinationales étant menées tous les quatre ans depuis 1995 (1). Plus de 100 000 élèves ont participé à la dernière enquête. Sur l’ensemble des pays participants, 23 étaient des États membres de l’UE.
- Date de parution: mai 2012
- European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
- Editeur: Office des publications de l'Union européenne
[L'apport en sodium pour les adultes et les enfants]
This guideline provides updated global, evidence-informed recommendations on the consumption of sodium to reduce NCDs in most adults and children. The recommendations in this guideline can be used by policy-makers, technical and programme planners in the government and various organizations involved in the design, implementation and scaling-up of nutrition actions for public health and prevention of NCDs, to assess current sodium intake levels relative to a benchmark and develop measures to decrease sodium intake, where necessary, through public health interventions including, reducing content in manufactured food, food and product labelling, consumer education, and the establishment of food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG).
The guideline should be should be used in conjunction with potassium and other nutrient guidelines to develop and guide national policies and public health nutrition programmes.
The reduction of sodium intake in the population is a cost-effective public health intervention for preventing NCDs and is one of the nine global targets selected by Member States for the prevention and control of NCDs.
- Date de parution: novembre 2012
- Editeur: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) [World Health Organization (WHO)]
[L'Indice Européen des Maux de Tête 2012]
As many as 50 million Europeans suffer from headache and migraine, for many with handicapping effects. Compared to other large diseases, there lacks outcomes data to tell what are the best therapies and if prevention matters. The first Euro Headache Index (EHI) compares in what way 29 European countries address and take care of headache and migraine, by healthcare and other measures. The Netherlands comes out number 1 on good headache environment, followed by Germany, Denmark and Austria.
The 2012 EHI looks into the following areas: Patients rights and information, Professional awareness and education, Access to healthcare, Medication/treatment and Prevention. In total there are 34 indicators for measurement.
- Date de parution: mars 2012
- Editeur: Health Consumer Powerhouse